Gynecomastia is a condition that leads to enlarged male breast tissue. Males of all ages can exhibit it, but it is most common during puberty, the infant stage, and later life. Gynecomastia can have a variety of causes, but the most prevalent one is a testosterone and oestrogen imbalance.
In whom can gynecomastia be seen?
Gynecomastia is a fairly common condition and can be seen at different stages of life:
- At birth: Male neonates develop swollen breasts, or breast buds, in more than half of cases. The mother’s oestrogen levels are to blame for this issue. Within a few weeks, the enlarged breasts usually go away.
- At puberty: Teenage boys who have reached puberty have larger breasts than their peers to some extent. Breast tissue expands as a result of fluctuating hormone levels, such as dips in testosterone and increases in oestrogen. As hormone levels balance out, which can take anywhere between six months and two years, the condition becomes better.
- Adulthood: Men aged more than 50 years are more likely to have enlarged breasts.The amount of testosterone produced by a male body reduces with age. Additionally, they might have greater body fat, which promotes the growth of breast tissue and oestrogen production.
What are its causes?
Gynecomastia is frequently brought on by an imbalance of the hormones oestrogen and androgen. The hormone that regulates breast growth, oestrogen, is typically only produced in small levels by men’s bodies. Your breasts may grow in size if your body produces excess oestrogen or if you have less testosterone (hypogonadism).
Due to extra fatty tissue, larger breasts can occasionally develop in obese people. This condition is called pseudogynecomastia.
What are the characteristics of gynecomastia?
This condition is characterized by:
- Increased glandular tissue development
- Increased localised fat
- This may occur in one breast or both breasts simultanously.
- Excess breast skin may also be present
What is gynecomastia surgery?
By reducing the size of the male breasts, gynecomastia surgery flattens and improves the chest outlines.
The weight of the extra breast tissue can sag the breasts and stretch the areola in severe cases of gynecomastia (the dark skin surrounding the nipple). In these situations, the areola’s position and size can be adjusted surgically, and any extra skin may be removed.
Gynecomastia plastic surgery is properly referred to as reduction mammaplasty.
What is the procedure?
General anaesthesia is administered before starting the surgery. Your doctor will provide you with the best option of anaesthesia suited for your need. There are different procedures that can be done based on the assessment don by your doctor. Some of these techniques are:
- Liposuction technique- Techniques for liposuction alone may be employed when the main cause of gynecomastia is an excess of fatty tissue. A cannula—a small, hollow tube—must be inserted through numerous tiny incisions to do this.To remove extra fat from the body, a vacuum suction device is used to move the cannula back and forth in a regulated way. There are several liposuction techniques that may be employed; the technique best suited for your situation will be determined before your treatment.
- Excision technique- When gynecomastia must be treated by removing glandular breast tissue or extra skin, excision procedures are advised. In order to shrink the areola or move the nipple to a more natural masculine contour, excision is also required. The type of surgery chosen and the individual diseases involved affect the incision patterns.
- Combination of liposuction and excision technique- Sometimes excision and liposuction are used to treat gynecomastia.
What to expect after the surgery?
In order to reduce swelling and support your new chest contour as it heals following surgery, dressings or bandages will be placed over your incisions throughout your recovery from gynecomastia surgery.
Your doctor may temporarily insert a small, thin tube under the skin to drain any extra blood or fluid that may accumulate.
You will receive detailed instructions on how to take care of the surgical site and drains, how to apply or take oral medications to promote healing and lower the risk of infection, how to look out for specific problems at the surgical site or with your general health, and when to schedule a follow-up appointment with your plastic surgeon.
You should anticipate feeling exhausted and perhaps some breast pain. It’s crucial to understand that you will have scars around the incisions following a breast reduction. Although these scars are permanent, they will eventually disappear.
During the first few weeks, you should refrain from lifting anything heavy to minimise tension on the incision and lower your risk of experiencing bleeding issues. As a result of breast reduction, you can also experience loss of feeling or changes in sensation in your nipple. Sometimes the modification is irreversible. Even though they are uncommon, some people may encounter certain issues, like insufficient healing, which may necessitate a skin graft.
When should I contact my doctor post surgery?
Your doctor will provide you with dates for your follow up post surgery. Other than this contact your doctor if you experience any of these symptoms:
- Discharge from the surgical site
- Opening of the surgical sutures
- Enlargement of operated breast tissue
- Discolouration around the operation site
The awareness about gynecomastia and its surgical management is still quite poor in India. Gynecomastia can cause social stigma and embarrassment in men and thus the topic is usually avoided. It is important to seek medical advice for the condition. Your doctor will help you find the cause and will suggest an appropriate plan of management according to your comfort.
How Sancheti Hospital can help you?
Sancheti Hospital is a premier healthcare institution that excels in reconstructive surgeries and orthopedic care. Our team of renowned surgeons has a proven record of success in performing a wide range of procedures, from spine replacements to joint and hip replacements, as well as plastic and reconstructive surgeries. Our highly skilled doctors will collaborate with you to create a personalized treatment to reduce pain and treat specific conditions. If you’re seeking expert medical advice and top-notch care, Sancheti Hospital is the ideal choice.