Deformities from childhood

Unusual or abnormal appearance of any body part is known as a deformity. A deformity not only affects the physical abilities of a child but also affects the child psychologically. An early detection of deformities can help in better management in the future.

Types of deformities
The types of deformities can be defined based on when they are developed-

  • Congenital deformities – Deformities that are present from birth, eg. Spina bifida, congenital hip dislocation, etc.
  • Developmental deformities- Deformities occurring due to improper development of the child. Eg. CTEV, stunted growth, etc.
  • Acquired deformities- Deformities that occur due to external factors- eg. due to malunion of fractures.
  • What are some commonly seen deformities in children?
    Several deformities can be seen in children at different stages of development. Some of them are-

    • CTEV-

      Congenital Talipes Equinovarus, often known as clubfoot is a disorder in which a child is born with one or both feet internally rotated at the ankle.
      It generally has two types- postural ctev and structural ctev. Signs and symptoms of CTEV are-

      • Inward turning of feet
      • Tight calf muscles
      • Inability to walk properly
      • Pain in the foot
    • Congenital dislocation of hip-

      A child can have congenital hip dislocation (CHD) if their hip is unstable at birth. It results from faulty hip joint construction in the foetus’ early developmental phases. This disorder is also known as “hip developmental dysplasia.” As your child gets older, this instability gets worse.
      Sometimes a child’s hip’s ball-and-socket joint can dislocate. This implies that movement will cause the ball to fall out of the socket. Sometimes, the joint may fully dislocate.

    • Congenital scoliosis-

      A sideways curvature of the spine that occurs in newborns is known as congenital scoliosis. Congenital scoliosis, which affects roughly 1 in 10,000 babies, is the least prevalent of the three main kinds of scoliosis.
      When the vertebrae do not develop normally before a baby is born, congenital scoliosis results. The severity of this kind of scoliosis can range from minor to life-threatening. Because the spine develops during the first few weeks of pregnancy at the same time as other organ systems, many kids with congenital scoliosis also have issues with their neurological systems, bladders, or kidneys. They might also experience issues with their spine or spinal cord.

    • Congenital kyphosis-

      A sharp forward angulation in the thoracic spine is know as kyphosis. Congenital kyphosis can be classified into two categories: failure of segmentation and failure of formation. A kyphosis is caused when a segment of one or more vertebral bodies fails to develop (Type I deformity), most commonly in the thoracolumbar spine. Kyphosis typically gets worse as a child grows . Typically, the abnormality is noticeable on the baby’s spine at birth as a lump or bump. When two or more vertebrae fail to separate and form typical discs and rectangular bones, the failure of segmentation deformity (Type II deformity) results. The likelihood of a diagnosis for this kind of congenital kyphosis increases when the youngster walks.

    • Cleft lip and cleft palate-

      Openings or cracks in the upper lip, the palate, or both are known as cleft lip and cleft palate, respectively. When a developing baby’s facial tissues don’t fully seal, it can lead to cleft lip and cleft palate.
      The most prevalent birth malformations are cleft lip and cleft palate. Although they most frequently manifest as solitary birth abnormalities, they are also linked to a variety of inherited genetic diseases or syndromes.

    How are deformities diagnosed?
    Deformities are diagnosed by a specialist doctor based on patient history, family history, and special tests and clinical examination. Imaging modalities such as XRAY, MRI, CT etc. may be done if thought necessary by the doctor. Certain special tests could also be performed to confirm the diagnosis.

    Management of the deformities
    The management of deformities in a child depends upon a number of factors. The doctor will examine the deformity thoroughly and to the extent with which it is interfering with the child’s function and accordingly decide the plan of management.
    The condition can be managed surgically or non surgically by applying casts and braces. When to perform the surgery is decided by the doctor based on the condition and clinical judgement.

    Deformities in children can cause quite a lot of stress to the child and the parents. The child may be discriminated against or can be treated differently and thus become sensitive. It is thus very important to diagnose them early and seek treatment promptly.

    How Sancheti Hospital can help you?
    Consider Sancheti Hospital if you are interested in plastic reconstructive surgery. It has a panel of leading surgeons with more than a decade’s experience in successfully carrying out various reconstructive surgeries. You can approach their panel of doctors for a diagnosis, treatment, and consultation to correct any deformities.

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