Osteoporosis is the disease of bone that leads to a decrease in the mineral content of the bone and causes bone weakness. This weakness may lead to fractures. Primary osteoporosis may risk postmenopausal women, people with low body weight, little or no physical activity, a diet low in vitamin D3 and calcium, smoking, etc. Prolonged bed rest and advanced age are additions to the list. Secondary osteoporosis occurs owing to other medical conditions. For eg, hyperthyroidism, chronic renewal failure, etc.
Regardless of the set of causes, osteoporosis is detected radiographically by classical features such as cortical thinning, increased bone radiolucency (osteopenia), trabecular changes and/or fractures.
Prevention Of Osteoporosis
Bone is a living tissue. It continually keeps replacing itself in response to daily demands and requirements. This continual replacement keeps our bones at their optimum strength. The National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) recommends four ways to prevent osteoporosis.
- Maintaining a balanced diet rich in calcium and vitamin D3.
- Eating foods such as fruits and vegetables.
- Performing regular weight-bearing exercises.
- Following a healthy lifestyle with moderate alcohol consumption and no smoking.
Exercises For Osteoporosis
As we age, there is a greater shift towards bone resorption. In women, resorption is accelerated during menopause owing to the decrease in estrogen. Physical activity has been shown to have a positive effect on bone remodelling. Regular exercises have been shown to reduce the effects of age-related bone loss. Muscle contraction exercises such as strengthening and resistance training along with mechanical loading i.e weight-bearing deforms the bone and improves the bone mass density by stimulating the bone formation (osteoblasts). The exercises should include
- Weight-bearing/ aerobic exercises: Weight-bearing exercises such as walking, jogging, climbing stairs, elliptical machines etc. These types of exercises work directly on the bones of the legs, spine, and hips to lower the mineral loss. They also provide cardiovascular benefits and boost your circulatory system.
- Non-weight-bearing exercises such as riding a static bicycle, and swimming also show additional benefits.
- Resistance exercises: Resistance exercises that target the major muscles. Resistance training should be tailored to one’s ability and tolerance. Proper training is crucial and the correct technique is very important. It can be achieved with manual resistance, weight cuffs, resistance bands, etc.
- For aerobic exercises, the frequency can be 5 days a week. The intensity of exercises can be 30 minutes of moderate-intensity (fast walking) or 20 mins of vigorous-intensity (running).
- For strength training, the frequency can be 2-3 days/week with adequate rest. The intensity can be 8-12 repetitions which leads to muscle fatigue.
Precautions and Contraindications
- When performing resistance training, it is important to keep a close watch on the increase in the intensity and progress within the structural limitations of the bone.
- Because osteoporosis changes the shape of the vertebral bodies (vertebral bodies tend to become more wedge-shaped) leading to kyphosis, flexion exercises such as supine curl-ups and sit-ups should be avoided. Such stress may increase the risk of vertebral compression fractures.
- Avoid combining rotations and flexion of the trunk to reduce stress on the vertebrae.
How Sancheti Hospital can help you?
Osteoporosis if neglected can disrupt your normal routine and life. It can also restrict mobility and function, hampering your daily routine. So, if you have been diagnosed with Osteoporosis, consider consulting our team of experts at Sancheti Hospital. Our panel of highly-skilled and qualified doctors are known for carrying out successful surgeries. Get relief from pain and recover faster under the supervision of our panel of doctors.
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